میرے چاروں طرف افق ہے جو ایک پردہء سیمیں کی طرح فضائے بسیط میں پھیلا ہوا ہے،واقعات مستقبل کے افق سے نمودار ہو کر ماضی کے افق میں چلے جاتے ہیں،لیکن گم نہیں ہوتے،موقع محل،اسے واپس تحت الشعور سے شعور میں لے آتا ہے، شعور انسانی افق ہے،جس سے جھانک کر وہ مستقبل کےآئینہ ادراک میں دیکھتا ہے ۔
دوستو ! اُفق کے پار سب دیکھتے ہیں ۔ لیکن توجہ نہیں دیتے۔ آپ کی توجہ مبذول کروانے کے لئے "اُفق کے پار" یا میرے دیگر بلاگ کے،جملہ حقوق محفوظ نہیں ۔ پوسٹ ہونے کے بعد یہ آپ کے ہوئے ، آپ انہیں کہیں بھی کاپی پیسٹ کر سکتے ہیں ، کسی اجازت کی ضرورت نہیں !( مہاجرزادہ)

منگل، 25 اپریل، 2017

مصحفِ عثمان -6- دارالکُتُب المصریہ

دارالکُتُب المصریہ  ، مصر میں موجود " شئیٍ عجیب"، مصری قران اور اُس کے عکس جسے،  مصحفِ عثمان سے منسوب کیا جاتا ہے-
 The “Qur'ān Of ʿUthmān” At The Egyptian National Library (Dār Al-Kutub Al-Misrīyya), Cairo, Egypt, From 1st / 2nd Century Hijra۔

 Figures: (a) Ms. 139, sūrah 5:80-83. 

(b) Ms. 139, sūrah 5:87-5:89. 

(c) Ms. 139, sūrah 5:92-5:95. 

(d) Ms. 139, sūrah 5:96-5:100. 

(e) Ms. 139, sūrah 5:107-5:110. 

(f) Arabe 324c, f. 39, sūrah 75:29-40.

Late 1st century / early 2nd century of hijra.
Hussein dates this manuscript to the 7th century CE. Moritz dates this manuscript to the 1st / 2nd century hijra.  Déroche gives three dates for this manuscript, the beginning of the 2nd century hijra / 8th century CE,  the middle of the 2nd century hijra / 8th century CE and the latter half of the 2nd century hijra / 8th century CE,  although it is not clear which of these dates he prefers. Von Bothmer dates this manuscript to the 2nd century hijra / 8th century CE. On the basis of a privately held fragment of the Qur'an (An ‘Umayyad’ Fragment Of The Qur'ān From 1st Century Hijra) carbon dated to the 7th century CE (609-694 CE with a 95.2% confidence level) showing similar script, textual aids and illumination, Dutton dated Arabic Palaeography Plates 1-12 (i.e., Ms. 139) to a roughly similar timeframe, i.e., the Umayyad period.[7]
Accession Number
Ms. 139 (Cairo); Ms. Arabe. 324a, 324b, 324c, 324d (Paris); Ms. Orient. A. 462 (Gotha).
Size & Folios
The size of the folios varies slightly with approximate dimensions of 53 x 63 cm, although the folios are heavily cropped and would have originally measured roughly 53 x 68 cm. Writing surface approximately 47-48 x 55-56 cm. This manuscript is another example of a large format Qur'an with 12 lines per page containing a significant number of extant folios. It was the largest manuscript examined by Déroche in his catalogue of early Qur'anic manuscripts held at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
Total number of folios: 306 folios = 562 folios preserved at the Egyptian National Library, Cairo, including 248 folios on true parchment, 34 folios on fake parchment, 61 folios from another Qur'an and 219 folios written on paper completed in 1830 CE (Ms. 139)  + 46 folios preserved in Paris (Ms. Arabe. 324a, 324b, 324c, 324d) folios preserved in Gotha (Ms. Orient. A. 462). Déroche estimates this manuscript would have originally contained more than 600 folios.
History Of The Manuscript
When it was resolved that a museum should be established in Gotha, Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (d. 1804) endowed Ulrich Jaspar Seetzen (d. 1811), German physician and explorer, with considerable material means and sums of money in order to purchase any interesting objects related to the arts, religion and literature, during his travels in the middle east. During his time in Cairo, Seetzen "purchased" 1574 manuscripts, 3536 archaeological objects and numerous other biological and geological specimens. It was around about this time Seetzen disguised himself as a Muslim in order to gain the confidence of the Egyptians and Arabs. On the 17th January 1809, Seetzen entered the ʿAmr b. al-ʿĀs mosque, Fustāt, with the intention of "purchasing" ancient manuscripts of the Qur'an but failed. A contemporary of his with similar interests, Jean-Louis Asselin de Cherville (d. 1822), consular agent of France in Egypt, fared much better, seen by the 46 folios of this manuscript preserved in Paris today. The 12 folios presently held in Gotha were apparently conveyed there by Seetzen, who, it appears, either bought or was gifted them from Cherville.
Scholars interested in ancient manuscripts of the Qur'an that make mention of this important manuscript are very seldom aware of all its constituent parts. Usually, only certain sections of this manuscript are discussed in contemporary publications (most notably Arabic Palaeography, Plates 1-12) to the exclusion of the rest. A good example of this can be seen in an encyclopaedia entry published this year whereby the entry on "Illumination" sub-section ‘Manuscripts of the Koran’ assigns Ms. 139 and Ms Arabe 324a as belonging to the same manuscript, without showing any knowledge of the other sections.
Script & Ornamentation
Kufic. According to his typology of early Qur'anic scripts, Déroche has assigned this manuscript the category CIa. Letter forms in this category are very close to those of Ḥijāzī IV. The form of in this manuscript is very similar indeed to that found in the inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock dating from 72 AH / 691 CE.
This manuscript is written on parchment with 12 lines per page showing the presence of line fillers to complete certain lines. The script is slightly sloping backwards with tall ascenders and is strongly reminiscent of the type of well executed kufic script exhibited during the Umayyad period. There is no vocalisation and a very limited amount of consonantal pointing (i.e., diacritical marks) – on some folios there are no diacritical marks at all. Multi-coloured (e.g., red, green, black, brown) diagonally arranged dashes are usually used to indicate verse-endings. Groups of five verses are marked with medallions and square cartouches containing quatrefoil emblems are used to indicate groups of ten verses. There are some arcaded bands that separate sūrahs without mentioning the name of the sūrah, some containing triangular-shaped crenelations. A modern cursive hand has added Arabic text at the top and bottom of each folio identifying the first and last verse. 

There are good number of other Qur'ans [such as the ones at St. Petersburg, two in Istanbul (Topkapi Library and TIEM), Cairo and Samarqand] having at times turned up in different parts of the Islamic world, almost all purporting to show the traces of the blood of the third caliph ʿUthmān upon certain pages, and thus the genuine ʿUthmānic Qur'an, the imām, which he was reading at the time of his death. Considering the palaeographic considerations, this Qur'an does not belong to time of the third caliph ʿUthmān.
The contents of the manuscript, as tabulated below, are gathered from the published material. They are arranged according to the folio number of Ms. 139 given by Shebunin[17] as well as in the numerical order of the sūrahs. Only the folios written on true parchment are considered here. Other manuscripts from the same codex are added to maintain the continuity of the sūrah order. Shebunin's indexing of the verse numbers on the folios have some errors which need to be corrected by checking the original codex. Some of them have been indicated by asterisk, i.e., ‘*’, next to the verse numbers.
Folio No. Qur'anic Sūrah Manuscript Image Publication
3:104-113, 120-133, 180-187 Arabe 324a
3:139-146 Arabe 324b
4:3-9, 24-29, 36-42 Arabe 324a
4:11-12, 89-92, 122-128 Arabe 324c
66 - 72 4:128-171* Ms. 139
5:2-23, 41-45 Arabe 324c
83 - 93 5:59-114* Ms. 139 Islamic Awareness, 2009
96 - 97 6:8-25 Ms. 139
99 - 107 6:33-94 Ms. 139
252 - 255 18:22-54* Ms. 139
257 - 258 18:62-82* Ms. 139
269 - 273 20:50-102 Ms. 139
275 20:115-127 Ms. 139
278 - 288 21:9-22:13 Ms. 139
292 22:43-53 Ms. 139
294 22:62-71* Ms. 139
298 - 300 23:25-67 Ms. 139
302 23:80-92* Ms. 139
305 24:1-8 Ms. 139
307 - 313 24:14-56* Ms. 139
320 - 322 25:36-65* Ms. 139
324 - 327 25:74-26:44 Ms. 139
330 - 338 26:84-27:22 Ms. 139
340 - 341 27:34-49* Ms. 139
343 - 344 27:60-82* Ms. 139
351 - 360 28:64-29:53 Ms. 139
362 30:4-12* Ms. 139
365 - 367 30:30-54* Ms. 139
369 - 374 31:5-32:19* Ms. 139
376 - 382 32:27-33:38 Ms. 139
384 - 388 33:49-34:6* Ms. 139
34:12-35:36 Arabe 324c
35:36-42 Arabe 324d
398 - 402 36:2-71* Ms. 139
404 - 454 37:1-43:51 Ms. 139 Moritz, 1905, Pl. 1-2 (end of sūrah 37 beginning of sūrah 38)
43:51-46:14 Ms. Orient. A. 462 von Bothmer, 1997, f. 3b (sūrah 43:85-44:3), f. 6b-7a (sūrah 44:52-45:7), f. 11a (sūrah 45:37-46:4)
461 - 476 46:15-49:13* Ms. 139 Moritz, 1905, Pl. 4 and Pl. 5 (end of sūrah 46 beginning of sūrah 47), Pl. 6 (end of sūrah 48 beginning of sūrah 49)
478 50:3-16* Ms. 139
480 - 486 51:1-53:39* Ms. 139
488 - 490 54:2-55 Ms. 139
55:1-27 Arabe 324c
493 - 505 55:75-58:22 Ms. 139 Moritz, 1905, Pl. 7 (end of sūrah 56 beginning of sūrah 57)
507 - 529 59:10-68:51 Ms. 139 Moritz, 1905, Pl. 8 (end of sūrah 59 beginning of sūrah 60), Pl. 9 (end of sūrah 63 beginning of sūrah 64), Pl. 10 (end of sūrah 65 beginning of sūrah 66), Pl. 11 (end of sūrah 66 beginning of sūrah 67)
68:51-72:16 Arabe 324c Déroche, 2004,[18] f.32, (end of sūrah 69 beginning of sūrah 70)
536 74:31-56* Ms. 139
75:1-76:22 Arabe 324c Déroche, 2004, f.39, (end of sūrah 75)[19]
77:11-41 Arabe 324c
540 77:41-78:19 Ms. 139
542 - 543 79:1-80:8 Ms. 139
80:11-81:2 Arabe 324c
545 81:4-?? (damaged) Ms. 139
547 83:2-83:23 (damaged) Ms. 139
549 - 551 84:8-87:1 Ms. 139 Moritz, 1905, Pl. 12 (end of sūrah 86 beginning of sūrah 87)
553 - 554 89:5-90:16* Ms. 139
95:5-96:19 Arabe 324c
100:2-102:4 Arabe 324c
105:1-107:7 Arabe 324c
Dār al-Kutub al-Misriyya, Cairo; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; Forschungsbibliothek, Gotha.
We would like to thank Dār al-Kutub al-Misrīyya, Cairo, for providing some images of the manuscript.

کوئی تبصرے نہیں:

ایک تبصرہ شائع کریں

خیال رہے کہ "اُفق کے پار" یا میرے دیگر بلاگ کے،جملہ حقوق محفوظ نہیں ۔ !

افق کے پار
دیکھنے والوں کو اگر میرا یہ مضمون پسند آئے تو دوستوں کو بھی بتائیے ۔ آپ اِسے کہیں بھی کاپی اور پیسٹ کر سکتے ہیں ۔ ۔ اگر آپ کو شوق ہے کہ زیادہ لوگ آپ کو پڑھیں تو اپنا بلاگ بنائیں ۔